Voices of Albion Revisited: The Long Lost Song of the Giant’s Dance

Giant's Dance

Close on three weeks ago now, following the appearance of a groundbreaking new theory in relation to the Acoustic Archaeology of Stonehenge, which had received some excellent and well deserved publicity on BBC tv and Radio, I published an article for ‘Distract the Media‘; in which I asserted that the earliest written reference to the origins of Stonehenge seems to point directly to some sort of musical association with this ancient prehistoric temple. Although this is not something that has been widely explored by either mainstream archaeologists or prehistorians, it is indisputable fact that the earliest account of Stonehenge that has thus far come down to us, that of the Mediaeval historian Geoffrey of Monmouth, refers to the monument as ‘The Giant’s Dance‘.

Although the story of Stonehenge’s construction, as it is recounted in Geoffrey’s semi-fabulous ‘Historia Regum Britanniae‘ wrongly accredits Merlin with being the builder of Stonehenge, it is not inconceivable that instead of being the fabricator of this ancient prehistoric structure, he was in some way responsible for reactivating it. From what we know of Merlin and the various Welsh Kings and Princes who he either served or interacted with, the most famous of whom, according to legend, was King Arthur of the Britons, he appears to represent the resurgence of indigenous paganism following the departure of the Romans from Britain: in archetypal terms at least.

From what we also know about the Fifth and Sixth Centuries in Ireland, which is where he is supposed to have gone to obtain the Stones in the first place, according to the legends recounted by Geoffrey at least, the last vestiges of native Celtic paganism appear to have survived in that country during the whole of the Roman occupation; and even after their departure. So, what we can most likely deduce from Geoffrey’s Stonehenge legend, as it is preserved in his ‘Historia’, is that whatever it was that was known about Stonehenge before the Romans came had somehow survived in Ireland. Albeit in fragmentary form.

From what is generally known about the archaeology of Stonehenge, it is safe to conclude that the temple appears to have gone through a variety of stages of development over the course of time. It is therefore also extremely likely that the rituals that were conducted on the site were being constantly evolved in a similar way. This considered, it is also by no means impossible that some sort of reconsecration of the site took place under Merlin’s supervision. Although the exact circumstances under which this may have taken place can only really be guessed at.

For those of us who had the good fortune to read ‘Merlin of the Crystal Cave‘ by Mary Stewart in childhood, or saw the award winning BBC television adaptation of the novel back in the nineteen nineties, this idea comes as little or no surprise to us. And, although the book and the television series are essentially a work of fiction, in the real world of Dark Age Britain, the Celtic Monarchy that Arthur, his forbears and his successors would ultimately represent, was essentially a revived institution amongst a newly reconstituted aristocracy whose ancestors had survived beyond the Roman Wall after the Roman Conquest.

Taking this into consideration then, it should perhaps be remembered by the various elements within the power structure who have always attempted to thwart the countercultural revival of this Celtic Paganism in our own times, that, like the real King Arthur of both history and legend, the revivalist ideals of our contemporary Loyal Arthurian Warband and its elected leader are no less relevant in the now than their Dark Age inspirational models were in the past. And, in view of this, it should also be remembered that even if they are defeated in their present legal dispute with English Heritage and others, they are likely to go down in history as the heroes of the piece and not the villains.

merlincave

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Voices of Albion Revisited: As Once It Was, So It Shall Be!

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The oft repeated quote ‘History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce’ generally attributed to Karl Marx, may well have been the original antecedent to that likewise attributed to George Santayana, “Those who do not learn history are doomed to repeat it.” Which, according to some sources at least, originally read ‘Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.’move in contemporary Pagan circles, in particular those of a Druidical persuasion, the clear disunity that appears to manifest itself constantly in relation to matters such as whether or not to accept having to pay money to English Heritage to use the car park in order to attend the Solstice Celebrations at Winter and Summer Solstice, is something that appears to those of us who attempt to remain impartial in such situations to be reminiscent of some of the ancient feuds recounted by the Ninth Century chronicler Nennius: whose ‘Annales Cambriae’, or Welsh Annals, is itself one of the most important primary sources for scholars interested in the Arthurian Period. Among its pages is evidence that the real reason for the British collapse that ultimately led to the foundation of the Early English Kingdoms in Northumbria, Wessex, Mercia and elsewhere, was the fact that the native Britons were so preoccupied with fighting amongst themselves that they failed to contain the Anglian and Saxon invaders to whom much of their strife ridden patrimony ultimately fell.

As well as some of the earliest references to the historical, as opposed to the mythological King Arthur, who are, to all intents and purposes completely different people, the ‘Annales Cambriae‘ contain much detailed information about the Sixth Century North British Chieftain Urien of Rheged and his campaigns against the English of Bernicia; during the course of which, in the words of this near contemporary commentator, he was assassinated by one of his supposed allies on account of his superior skill in military leadership and tactics. Whether the assassination is in a physical sense, as it clearly was with Urien of Rheged, or, as in the case of one of the foremost campaigners for free and open access to Stonehenge at certain key points in the Druidical Calendar, the back stabbing and the in fighting, now as then, are pretty much all one and the same.

Interestingly enough, at a far earlier juncture, as the Neolithic Period gradually began to give way to the Bronze Age via the so called ‘Copper Age’, Stonehenge itself appears to have been at the centre of what appear to have been a series of religious and cultural disputes which not only seriously impacted the architecture and layout of Stonehenge itself, but also that of nearby Durrington Walls; where a series of recent archaeological excavations have found evidence of a massive wooden structure described as an actual rival of Stonehenge of ‘gigantic proportions’. And, interestingly enough, not long after these apparent disputes appear to have taken place, another influx of people, in this instance the culture generally referred to as ‘The Beaker Folk‘, who colonized the Maritime Seaboard of Western Europe from an original cultural heartland possibly located in what is now modern Portugal.

Whilst all this was happening the nearby Stone Circle at Avebury was also undergoing extensive realignment and changes in its overall design, which is perhaps indicative of the first stirrings of the gradual change of religious ritual practices from those previously adhered to in the Age of Taurus to those which were to prevail during the Age of Aries. Michael Dames in his two books ‘The Avebury Cycle’ and ‘The Silbury Treasure’, originally published by Thames and Hudson some forty years ago, was one of the principal exponents of the theory that Avebury and Silbury were part of a vast ritual landscape originally dedicated to the worship of aspects of the primordial Mother Goddess by the Stone Age peoples of Britain. An idea that was in sharp contrast to that of his seventeenth and eighteenth century predecessors, the Antiquarian William Stukeley and the Royal Topographer John Aubrey. Both believed a local tradition that Silbury in particular was the burial place of an Ancient British King named Sil or Zeal; a legend likewise referred to in the writings of the Stuart diarist, Samuel Pepys.

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        Vintage Photograph of Silbury Hill with inset diagram of Meridian Sections of the Prehistoric Monument.

Thus, the original goddess to whom this ancient ritual landscape was itself formerly dedicated, who manifests in legend as Sul, the patron deity of what was later to become the Roman settlement of Aquae Sulis, or Bath, a one time ritual centre of her people, the Silures of Avon and South Wales, was to be superseded by Aubrey and Stukeley’s King Sil. The new Solar religion of the Martial Age of Aries having succeeded that of the Lunar goddess worship of the Venusian Taurean Age that had preceded it. Proof of this can be found at nearby Woodhenge, a site associated by John Michell and Robin Heath in their book ‘The Measure of Albion’ (Bluestone Press 2004) with a landscape alignment to St. Michael’s Chapel on Gare Hill some twenty four Greek Miles or 20.4 Statute Miles away. Gare Hill in turn is located on an alignment that runs directly from Glastonbury to Stonehenge, and was undoubtedly a major spiritual centre long before the construction of the Mediaeval Chapel of Ease that stood there before the present, now deconsecrated, ecclesiastical structure was built.

So, on the basis of this evidence it is safe to conclude that the Druidical religion that was to dominate the Age of Aries in Britain, and which appears to have been based almost entirely on a system of poetical Triads, in terms of its esoteric oral literature at least, as well as its eight fold ritual calendar year, seems to have evolved into its highest ceremonial form in the wake of this apparent realignment of all of these sacred sites. Three and eight are both multiples of twenty four, and the Ancient Numerical Canon employed by Plato in his writings on the Mystical Dimensions of the Perfect City, which forms the basis for measurements such as the Greek Mile, has been demonstrated by Michell in his ‘City of Revelation’ and elsewhere to have have been intrinsically linked to the dimensions of Stonehenge ‘and of the whole World as therein symbolized’.

The lesson to be learned here is that the attempts by English Heritage to systematically interfere with the geomantic resonance of Stonehenge, by the creation of the Visitors’ Centre and the digging of the much publicized tunnel, are part of an attempt to transform what is to all intents and purposes a spiritual temple into a temple to mammon. And, whilst everyone is fighting and squabbling about whether or not to pay to use a car park this entire process is likely to continue unchallenged.

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Remember! Remember the 5th & 6th November!

Inspired by the Levellers and the Diggers

New Putney Debates celebrates the 799th anniversary of the Charter of the Forest on 5th & 6th November with a weekend of events looking at how social protest won the commons and ongoing struggle for land rights and democracy – from Robin Hood to recent protest to keep our housing and protect nature.

Starting with a trip to Hackney Marshes at 2pm on 5 November, a timeline exhibition at 5pm , followed at 7:30 a boat party with folk & protest songs , all on Fordham Gallery barge. Sunday has a walk plotting the steps in the evolution if the Charter of the Forest, through the streets and parks of London , starting at 1pm, Lambeth Palace.
Programme

5th November

2pm: Boat Trip visit to the Hackney Marshes common land. Meet 2pm at Fordham Gallery Boat, River Lee, White Post Lane, Hackney Wick, E15. FREE

5pm: Opening of the timeline. This shows a history of land-rights and protest in and around London and the Thames Valley, from the first settlement of London to the entering of the Charter of the Forest and the Magna Carta into statute in 1297. Venue: Fordham Gallery Boat, River Lee, White Post Lane, Hackney Wick, E15. FREE

7:30pm until late: Lands & Housing Rights protest song sing-a long with Robin Grey, featuring songs from the ‘Three Acres and a Cow, followed by boat party with acoustic music and pizza, featuring musician Pete Deane, Tim Flitcroft and friends. Venue: Fordham Gallery Boat, River Lee, White Post Lane, Hackney Wick, E15. £5 tickets can be booked at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/boat-party-charter-of-the-forest-celebration-tickets-28145723617

6th November

1pm: Walking tour featuring important points in the development of the Charter of the Forest. Meet by the roundabout outside Lambeth Palace at 1pm, ends at St Paul’s Cathedral at about 3:15pm. FREE
More information here:

Source: Welcome

 

merlincarouse

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Voices of Albion Revisited: ‘Occupy Stonehenge!’ A Beginner’s Guide to the relevance of the original Free Festival Movement to Occupy

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It is now nearly thirty years since the so called ‘Battle of the Beanfield’, the shocking and brutal suppression by Wiltshire Constabulary of the last major attempt to hold a Free Festival at Stonehenge. The event was to coincide, almost simultaneously, with the first anniversary of the so called ‘Battle of Orgreave’, where no less brutal and oppressive Police tactics were used against striking miners; as part of the Thatcher Government’s crackdown against organized union opposition to its so called ‘reforms’. These two major social and political events, although seemingly world’s apart to the casual observer, unaware of what was really going on, were to effectively destroy or alter the lifestyles of large numbers of now largely socially disenfranchised people irrecovably; and were to lay the foundations of the subsequent and still on going Neo Liberal restructuring of the U.K. Labour and Housing Markets.

Although film of the brutality of ‘The Battle of Orgreave’ was transmitted nationally and internationally by mainstream news networks, video of ‘The Battle of the Beanfield’ was not. It would be some years before the suppressed footage shot by an ITN news crew on the day would eventually resurface, much of it already having disappeared to places still unknown, this time in a Channel Four documentary entitled ‘Operation Solstice’. Amongst those interviewed in the film as part of their campaign to get legal redress, for the vicious and brutal way that they had been treated by those in authority, were Helen Reynolds, Alan Lodge and Mo Lodge; three names that may well be familiar to many of those who are still involved in the still on going Stonehenge Festival Campaign and its other related campaign group, O.A.T.S.: more generally known as ‘Open Access to Stonehenge’.

In an interview with the makers of ‘Operation Solstice’, Mo Lodge described the Stonehenge Free Festival, its organizers and its participants as being an effective ‘threat to the State’. The fact that the numbers of people involved were ‘doubling every year for four years…’, to use her exact words, demonstrated to the Authorities that those involved were perfectly capable of managing their own affairs without the excessive interference, or indeed demands, of either Central Government or Big Business. Indeed, as she was also to point out in her own personal summing up of the reasons for the Free Festival’s suppression, ‘…once it became to be a month long it functioned perfectly well, it had its own economy, it had its own system for everything and was so successful in that sense that it must have been a huge threat to the state…’ The biggest threat of all however was the fact that it epitomized what Mo herself was to describe as ‘anarchy in action and it worked’.

Meanwhile, on the other side of the Atlantic, on September 17th 2014, some three months and one day after the thirtieth anniversary of ‘The Battle of Orgreave’, and amid tight security, Occupy Wall Street marked its third anniversary. In an on-line CNN iReport to coincide with the third anniversary celebrations, reference was made by the media mainstream as to how the Occupy Wall Street demonstrations had drawn thousands together in Zuccotti Park and nearby areas to protest against the problems engendered by the 2008 Financial Crisis. Little attention was paid to the fact that on this side of the Atlantic at least the foundation of the Occupy Movement marked the thirtieth anniversary of the onset of the 1978–79 “Winter of Discontent”. A series of crippling strikes that had largely come about as a result of another previous Labour government’s inability to manage the economy and deal with large scale unemployment. Indeed, it was Conservative attacks on the then Labour government’s unemployment record that were to give rise to perhaps its best known political slogan “Labour Isn’t Working” during the 1979 General Election that brought Margaret Thatcher into office.

Like Occupy in its purest form the Stonehenge Free Festival Movement represented a return to the true and primitive democracy to which the Seventeenth Century Diggers and Levellers aspired. Aspirations that were recently re-invoked during the latest round of Occupy London’s ‘New Putney Debates’. The second programme of discussions aimed at moving Britain forward towards a more democratic and socially enfranchised society inspired by the original Leveller Debates of October and November 1647. Like Occupy, the Stonehenge Free Festival Movement also looked towards such new innovations as the development of renewable energies and alternative economic models; long before many of the present active participants in the current wave of protests and occupations that it has engendered were even born.

For more about ‘Occupy Stonehenge’ check out the group on Facebook or follow the Stonehenge Festival Campaign newsletter soon to be available on Issuu.

This post originally appeared in the Stonehenge Festival Campaign 2014 Winter Solstice Newsletter.

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Voices of Albion Revisited: Iolo Morganwg The Bard of Liberty

LondlevLondputThe initiation of this ongoing thread began, to all intents and purposes, as a response to the New Putney Debates of October and November 2012; when the LSX Occupy Group decided to celebrate the 365th Anniversary of the original Leveller Debates at Putney Church with a similarly radical series of discussions on a series of possible political futures for the country. Unbeknown to many who had taken part in the original Putney Debates, not to mention their Twenty First Century successors, a key figure in the initiation of the original Putney Debates had been Oliver Cromwell; the later Lord Protector.

Cromwellsm

As has already been noted during an earlier posting on the parallel stream to this present thread, Cromwell’s original family surname of ‘ap Gwilym’. or Williams, was to link him to one of the greatest and most controversial figures in the history of Welsh Bardic Revivalism, that of Edward Williams. Better known by his Non de Plume as Iolo Morganwg, Edward Williams was destined to be the original reviver of the so called ‘Druidic Gorsedd’, on Primrose Hill, in the summer of 1792; and thus a primary source of inspiration to those later Bards and Druids who were to kindle another fire in the Cauldron of Inspiration of the late Wally Hope: erstwhile ‘Reviver’ of the Stonehenge People’s Free Festival.

stagehengeInterestingly enough, like many of the Wallies, the anarcho-spiritual movement that Wally Hope was himself to spawn, Iolo’s own home grown form of revived Druidism was itself to be directly rooted in radical revolutionary politics. Like many of Iolo’s contemporaries, he himself was to be greatly inspired by the great tide of revolutionary ideas that was to sweep across Europe and North America at the end of the eighteenth century. And, like William Blake, who had been similarly influenced by events across the other side of the Atlantic, Iolo’s own personal brand of Ancient Druidic philosophy was likewise to be rooted in the original Leveller concept that some sort of primitive democracy had existed in Britain before the coming of the Romans; and that for a limited period of time, between the departure of the Roman Legions for mainland Europe as the Empire that they served had descended into the chaos of military anarchy that had ushered in the Dark Ages, and the arrival of the Normans in Britain, these ancient indigenous democratic institutions had been temporarily and partially revived.

At the bottom of this posting I have embedded the first episode of the six part Youtube edit of my 2007 independent film ‘Voices of Albion: Levellers, Luddites, Diggers and Dongas in Traditional and Contemporary Folklore’; which examines Iolo’s inspirational links to the Age of Enlightenment that was to spawn him. In the next posting we shall look further at some of the ideas that we have already touched on, at various other stages in this ongoing thread, in relation to what readers are about to view here; as well as setting ourselves along the road to examining a great deal more, in terms of the history and development of the ideas that were at the hub of both the Leveller and the New Putney Debates, than I myself was able to look at during the course of a single one off documentary.

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Voices of Albion Revisited: The Measure of Albion

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In the third installment of this recently reactivated thread we follow on from the concept of Custom Law and Common Right, in relation to Wally Hope’s Stonehenge People’s Free Festival, and the Open Access to Stonehenge Campaign that it was eventually to spawn more than three decades after his death, with a look at the significance of Stonehenge as an actual physical repository of the lost science of Prehistoric Britain; as set out in its physical dimensions. In many ways, the fact that the builders of Stonehenge appear to have possessed an in depth knowledge of the Universal Canon of Number and Measure that the builders of the Pyramids of Egypt, and many other similarly ancient monuments across much of what is generally referred to as ‘the Old World’, and beyond, can also be proven to have been familiar with, is perhaps a key factor in the decision by English Heritage, and the various other vested interests linked to the sorry saga of the Free Festival and its suppression, to restrict non-commercial tourist based access to the Stones as far as is humanly possible.

Although it is widely accepted that Stonehenge was used by Prehistoric Man as some sort of Astronomical computer, for the purpose of calculating the best available dates for the sowing of each year’s crops, with a view to obtaining the most bounteous harvest possible, comparatively little has found its way into the mainstream of public consciousness in relation to its primordial function as the physical embodiment of our ancient forbears’ extensive knowledge of the ancient science of Metrology. The late John Michell, in his long out of print treatise on this largely forgotten subject, ‘Ancient Metrology: The Dimensions of Stonehenge and of the Whole World as therein symbolized’, published back in 1983 by Pentacle Books, a long vanished imprint that produced a whole series of equally fascinating tracts on inter-related subjects, describes this system as follows:

‘A tradition that has been credited by many learned men over the centuries is that the ancients encoded their knowledge of the world in the dimensions of their sacred monuments….men of science in very ancient times possessed knowledge of the shape and dimensions of the earth and its planetary neighbours which is still expressed in ancient monuments, units of measure, systems of numeration and other relics and traditions of the past.’

In recent years such ideas have been more openly discussed in the wider community in relation to a similar Canon of number and measure incorporated into the dimensions of Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland; as a result of the run away success of Dan Brown’s celebrated novel ‘The Da Vinci Code’; and its equally successful cinema adaptation starring Tom Hanks in the lead role. At the heart of the plot line in both novel and film, as well as the series of pseudo-historical books by Baigent, Lincoln and Leigh that are believed by many to have influenced them, lies the significance of such ideas to elite fraternities within the Power Structure, people like Opus Dei and the Freemasons, who claim to possess the hidden keys of cipher and symbol, at the heart of such ancient knowledge, as a key element within their own secret and closely guarded hidden esoteric teachings.

Perhaps then this explains the reason why the situation regarding Open Access to Stonehenge is and always has been such a contentious issue. It was as if Wally Hope had transgressed the ‘Unwritten Law’, in the comedic ‘Doug and Dinsdale Pirahna’ ‘Pythonesque’ usage of the term, when he founded the Festival back in 1974, as his subsequent death under what are for many of us still mysterious circumstances could have been lifted straight out of Dan Brown’s novel. Were there hidden forces at work that did for him, and if so what was their motivation for doing this? And, was it in some way connected with the ideas espoused by Michell in some of his most obscure writings about Stonehenge? Elsewhere in ‘Ancient Metrology’ Michell continues as follows:

‘The dimensions of the great circle of Stonehenge, the temple of prehistoric Wessex, provide a monumental record of the standards of measure used by its builders and of the lengths they attributed to the Earth’s dimensions’.

During the course of the same treatise, much reference is made to an earlier published work by the same author entitled ‘City of Revelation’, that preceded it by some several years,  in which the geometry of the monument is also looked at in some considerable depth. Interestingly enough, amongst the two dimensional Plane Geometric figures that Michell superimposes over a ground plan of the Monument during the course of the latter work is the regular Hexagram, or ‘Star of David’, a symbol widely used by Illuminists, Freemasons, and other secret societies, throughout a wide variety of overt and covert applications. Was this the key to Wally Hope’s unfortunate and premature demise? And, if so, was he some sort of masonic martyr, sacrificed on the altar of their quasi-religious doctrines as a means of keeping knowledge of the Monument’s hidden significance out of the consciousness of the mainstream?

Whatever the real truth in relation to the last posed question, it is fact that both English Heritage, the Police and every other vested interest linked to the death of Wally Hope and the subsequent demise of the Free Festival, was in some way linked to the hydra of masonic influences that permeate the upper echelons of the Power Structure at every conceivable level. In a future installment of this ongoing thread we shall examine these ideas in more depth.

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Voices of Albion Revisited: Custom Law and Common Right

Giant's Dance 2

The Giant’s Dance

In the first posting on this newly reactivated thread we looked at the significance of Wally Hope’s Stonehenge People’s Free Festival in terms of its descent from a far earlier festival, rooted in Custom Law and Common Right, the origins of which are lost in the deepest primordial mists of Ancient Time. Many of those involved in the long running Open Access to Stonehenge Campaign have continually attempted to use these facts as the basis for their arguments for greater access, so in this posting I have decided to look at some of the ancient and well established traditions relating to some of the genuinely documented Rites (and Rights) of Assembly that were formerly enacted there as recorded by Ancient Bardic historians.

One of the greatest Medieval repositories of Ancient Welsh Bardic lore are the writings of Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose ‘History of the Kings of Britain’ contains much interesting information about Stonehenge. Although, like many Medieval histories written up by Medieval clerics, openly hostile to the pagan traditions that many of them were so successfully to preserve, Geoffrey’s work is riddled with inaccuracies, there is a great deal of hidden knowledge contained within its pages that Geoffrey himself was unable to understand: and therefore largely unable to interfere with as a result.

Amongst the traditions preserved by Geoffrey in relation to Stonehenge is that it was previously referred to by the indigenous Britons as ‘The Giants Dance’. The fact that gigantic hill figures, such as the Long Man of Wilmington and the Cerne Abbas Giant in Dorset, were undoubtedly worshiped by at least some of our remote ancestors, whether as fertility symbols, ancient prehistoric surveyors, or in some other guise, is beyond any questionable doubt. It is therefore probable that at some point during the Solar Year the various priesthoods of the myriad of cults with which these great landscape effigies were at one time formerly associated came together at Stonehenge to commune through music and dance.

As we saw in my previous posting, old antiquarian representations of what are believed to have been the earliest festivals in the vicinity would tend to support this point of view, so it is indeed a credible scenario. Similarly, another of the activities which appears to have taken place on or near the site, at least according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, include manifestations of the ancient Folk Moot, or traditional Parliaments: in many ways a more ancient and uniquely British, as opposed to Norse, version of the old Manx Parliament, or Tynwald, formerly enacted on the Isle of Man.

Elsewhere in Geoffrey’s ‘History’ we are told of how Ambrosius Aurelianus, King Arthur’s direct ancestor, is said to have enacted just such an assembly in the vicinity of Stonehenge itself; shortly before his death, and internment, close at hand. Indeed, according to Geoffrey, Ambrosius Aurelianus’s remains are said to have been buried within the precincts of Stonehenge itself. Regardless of the clear lack of historical accuracy in relation to many of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s statements, archaeology has shown  conclusively that the immediate area around Stonehenge was used extensively as a burial ground for what were almost certainly a dynasty, or dynasties, of Sacral Kings; as far back as the era generally referred to as ‘The Beaker Period’: when the civilization generally referred to as ‘The Wessex Culture’ were the dominant social force in the region.

The ‘Old King’s Barrows’ sketched by the eighteenth century Antiquarian, William Stukeley, whose pioneering field work around Stonehenge and Avebury was to preserve for posterity  a reasonably accurate visual record of many unique landscape features that have failed to survive the test of time, clearly show that the area around the monument itself  was formerly used as some kind of ritual complex directly connected with the internment of ancient primordial sacral kings. On the face of this evidence then, it is probable that these self same rituals were also in some way linked to the election of each sacral king’s successor.

We know from the earliest surviving records that a system of electoral, as opposed to hereditary, monarchy was practiced in Ireland and Scotland right the way down into Mediaeval times. It is also fact that the legend of the Sword and the Stone that lies at the heart of the Arthurian  Tradition makes direct reference to Ambrosius Aurelianus’s descendant, Arthur, as having been elected king in this way. Although Geoffrey makes Arthur’s Father, and predecessor, Uther Pendragon, the brother of Ambrosius Aurelianus, genuine Breton, Welsh and Cornish sources give a different rendition of Arthur’s pedigree altogether.

Taking this into consideration then it is perhaps significant that recent excavations in and around Tintagel have unearthed some sort of ritual complex in no ways dissimilar to that which formerly existed at Dunadd in Scotland: the ancient place of ritual election and enthronement of the Scottish Kings of Dal Riada. Of further significance is the fact that amongst the sacred objects rediscovered at the site was an ancient stone carved with an equally ancient footprint similar to that in which the the successful Dal Riadic royal candidate was made to stand during the course of the Coronation Ritual.

Of further significance still is the fact that amongst the successors of Ambrosius Aurelianus who are listed by Geoffrey of Monmouth as having been buried somewhere within  the Stonehenge ritual complex is Constantine King of Cornwall: a successor of Arthur who features in the writings of Gildas the Wise. It is fact that Tintagel was formerly one of Constantine’s landed possessions, in addition to being the legendary birth place of King Arthur.

So what can we learn from these facts, and how do they relate to current efforts to restore Open Access to the Stones to the people who still venerate them as sacred? Geoffrey of Monmouth’s history is quite clear with regard to the ancient Prophecies of Merlin that the successors of Hengist and Horsa, the Anglo-Saxon invaders whose emblem of the White Horse is identical to that of the German House of Hanover from whence the dynasty of Windsor ultimately descends, would be driven from power in these Islands by a descendant of the indigenous Welsh. Is the deep seated fear amongst those with a vested interest in the present monarchical set up, that the rise of a new royal line, rooted in a heritage of Ancient British Princely descent, would see the fall of the old, as the New Age is ushered in, the real reason for the ludicrous situation as regards Stonehenge? Or is there something even more sinister afoot when it comes to Open Access to Stonehenge?

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